Some diseases have no vaccination and treatments

Mosquito-Borne diseases are caused by parasites or viruses transmitted by mosquitoes that cause diseases in humans. Mosquitoes are among the deadliest vector animals globally and causes an extreme concern to public health. The vector Mosquito cause diseases such as Malaria,  Japanese Encephalitis, Dengue, Yellow fever, Chikungunya, Lymphatic Filariasis, Zika, Rift valley and West Nile fever that claim the lives of millions of population globally every year (WHO, 2020).

Malaria, a most common disease caused by parasites of the genus Plasmodium, which is transmitted to humans through a bite, is still a challenge to India. The pre-independence estimates of Malaria were about 75 million cases and 0.8 million deaths annually. People used insecticides to kill the mosquitoes, which started in 1950 with DDT; however, now they started becoming resistant to DDT. The problem was virtually eliminated in the mid-sixties. However, it again re-emerged due to resistance generated to chloroquine present, creating another challenge. Still, 94 per cent of India's people are in danger of Malaria (P.J. Guerin, 2019). It can be treated by applying the vaccine (Susanta K. Ghosh, 2019).

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a zoonotic disease first diagnosed in Vellore in 1955, which is transmitted by vector mosquitoes mainly belonging to the Culex species. It is transmitted to humans through a bite of a mosquito. In India, the JE peaks in the season from May to November, especially in northern parts and for extended periods in southern India (Susan L. Hills, Nicole P. Lindsey, Marc Fischer, 2019). According to the 2017 annual report, more than 1/4thof the population is at risk of JE all over India. It does not have a specific cure; however, the vaccine can reduce risks. It can be treated through supportive care and early management to minimise the risk of death (Disease Control Programmes,Annual Report, 2017).

Dengue is an outbreak susceptible to viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Both Aedes aegypti and Ae Albopictus are involved in transmission. Dengue's first outbreak in 1996 occurred with a total (of 16517 cases and 545 deaths); now, there is a reduction in the number of deaths. Anti-larvae like temephos, fenthion, and Malathion is used to cure it, which has developed resistance and has become a significant concern for public health.

Chikungunya is a devastating non-fatal viral disease transmitted to humans by Aedes mosquitoes. In India, a major epidemic of Chikungunya fever was reported during the 1960s & 70s. In 2005, the disease re-emerged, and the cases of Chikungunya up-surged over the last five years. The infection can be transmitted from mother to newborn child. However, no antiviral treatment or vaccine exists (P. Kumar, 2017).

The Zika virus causes Zika fever; the disease is transmitted to monkeys and humans through a bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. Zika is a non-fatal disease; it can only be prevented by using insect repellents and mosquito elimination as no treatment is available.

Yellow fever disease is caused by the virus transmitted to humans and monkeys by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes bite. The condition can be mild to fatal with no specific antiviral treatment against it; the vaccine's application can prevent the spread of infection.

Lymphatic filariasis is a parasitic disease transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus-group Anopheles, Culex, Aedes, and Mansonia. However, it is non-fatal and causes severe disability; it is a neglected disease with limited research. A combination of two drugs applies to treatment against it.

The Rift Valley fever virus causes Rift Valley fever affects domestic animals and humans by a genus of the Phlebovirus. The vaccine is the treatment available against the disease.

West Nile fever is transmitted to humans through the bite of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes. The disease affect birds, horses and humans. The only treatment is a vaccine available for horses and not humans (JA Cuervo-Parra, 2016).

Immunisation is considered the most cost-effective health investment. However, most diseases have no vaccination and treatments, and prevention is the best strategy. Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever have vaccines. However, data on yellow fever coverage is not provided in India.


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