World Intellectual Property Indicators, 2023- Part 2

Building on the insights shared in last week's newsletter regarding World IP Indicators 2023, further updates into the latest developments in the field of intellectual property.

World Intellectual Property Indicators, 2023- Part 2
  1. Industrial Designs
  • Notable 3% decrease compared to the previous year.
  • Approximately 1.1 million applications are filed worldwide.
  • The first drop since 2014, was observed in 61% of offices globally.
  • China experienced a decrease of almost 9,500 applications.
  • Republic of Korea and Iran reported substantial drops of 8,019 and 5,804 applications, respectively.
Trend in industrial design applications worldwide, 2008–2022(Bhupesh Upadhyay for The IP Wave) Source: WIPO Statistics Database, 2023.
  • China's office accounted for 54.8% of all designs in global applications.
  • The top 20 offices combined accounted for 95.3% of the total.
  • 13 among the top 20 offices recorded annual growth.
  • Growth: India (+53.2%), France (+50.8%), Canada (+39.3%), Türkiye (+27.6%).
  • Decline: China (–7.9%), EUIPO (–7.9%), Republic of Korea (–4.1%).
  • The downturn is evident in both categories, with China contributing significantly.
  • Non-resident design count had a substantial decrease, contrasting with 29.5% growth in 2021.
  • Played a significant role in non-resident filing activity (33.8% of global activity).
  • Türkiye experienced a sharp increase, ranking third globally.
  • Standout Growth: Türkiye (+27.6%), Morocco (+11.3%), Italy (+10.9%).
  • Substantial Declines: Iran (–41.4%), Russia (–24.7%), Republic of Korea (–11.7%).
  • Impressive growth in ARIPO, Indonesia, South Africa, and OAPI.
  • Declines in Ukraine (–37.5%), Belarus (–28.7%), Mongolia (–17.5%), Mexico (–13.4%).
  • Accounted for 82.8% of the world design count, with China's office contributing significantly (97.5% resident design share).
  • Asia dominated (70.3% of designs), followed by Europe (22.4%) and North America (4.4%).
  • China (841,164 designs), Türkiye (80,559), Germany (70,346), US (67,349), Republic of Korea (62,014).
  • Top 5 origins increased by 4.6 percentage points in the last decade.
  • Türkiye (17.4%), China (44.8%), Republic of Korea (48.8%) exhibited the highest resident design counts per USD 100 billion of GDP.
  • The Republic of Korea had the most substantial resident design count per million population.
  • Intense activity relative to GDP: China, Madagascar, Mongolia, Morocco, Republic of Korea.

Trend in industrial design applications for the top five offices 2003–2022


  • Four main sectors (furniture, textiles, tools, electricity) collectively accounted for 54.3% of all classes recorded globally.
  • 5.2% decrease from 2021 in applications (1 million registered).
  • China contributed to 54.8% of all designs in registered applications.
  • Active registrations worldwide increased by 8.8% (5.8 million estimated).
  • China led with a 9.7% growth, contributing to almost half of the global total.
  • EUIPO registered the largest proportion of processed applications (96.7%).
  • High rejection rates at the US, Jamaica, and Indonesia offices.
  • Türkiye and the UK had fewer potentially pending applications compared to other major offices.

2. Plant Variety

  • 27,260 applications filed worldwide.
  • 8.2% increase from the previous year.
  • China led with 47.8% of applications (13,027), a 16.4% increase.
  • The UK showed a remarkable 316.1% increase, reaching 1,702 applications.
  • The United States recorded a decline of 27.7%.
Plant variety applications by region, 2012 and 2022(Bhupesh Upadhyay for The IP Wave) Source: WIPO Statistics Database, 2023.
  • Asia represented 54.6% of global applications.
  • Europe accounted for approximately 29%.
  • China's dominance contributed significantly to Asia's leading role.
  • China and the UK experienced substantial growth.
  • The European Union's CPVO faced an 8.2% decline.
  • The US recorded a significant drop of 27.7%.
  • Combined share of top five jurisdictions grew to 74.0%.
  • China's resident share in applications was the highest at 94.7%.
  • China led as the most active filer with 12,357 applications, a 16.9% increase.
  • Global dynamics suggest India's potential for a more active role.
  • Total titles issued globally decreased by 1.4% (14,920 titles).
  • China led in title issuance with 4,026 titles, a 1.2% increase.
  • The Community Plant Variety Office (CPVO) experienced a 3.9% increase in titles.
  • The US and Ukraine faced declines of 4% and 17.7%, respectively.
  • Approximately 161,210 titles are in force globally, a 4.5% increase.
  • CPVO, the US, and China held the highest number of active titles.
  • India's specific contribution is not outlined, but its agricultural significance implies potential increased participation.

3. Geographical Indications

  • In 2022, approximately 58,400 GIs worldwide.
  • Europe led with 53.1% of GIs, followed by Asia at 36.3%, Latin America and the Caribbean at 4.3%, Oceania at 3.6%, North America at 2.6%, and Africa at 0.1%. China, with 9,571 GIs, primarily protected three-quarters of them through the trademark system.
  • Within the European Union (EU), member states like Germany and Hungary held substantial positions in terms of the number of GIs in force.
Geographical indications in force for selected national and regional authorities, 2022(Bhupesh Upadhyay for The IP Wave) Source: WIPO Statistics Database, 2023.
  • Brazil, Colombia, India, Malaysia, and the United States safeguarded all their GIs through national systems.
  • Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, and Israel heavily relied on the Lisbon System, constituting 96.9%, 97.5%, and 99.2% protection, respectively.
  • Armenia and the United Kingdom stood out, with 99.7% and 99.9% of their GIs protected through international agreements.
  • Türkiye had an overwhelmingly high share of national GIs at 99.8%, while Bosnia and Herzegovina reported 99.7% foreign GIs.
  • More than 90% of GIs in force in Brazil (91.7%), China (94.4%), India (92.8%), Malaysia (94.5%), Thailand (90.8%), and Türkiye (99.8%) were national GIs.
  • Conversely, almost all GIs in force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (99.7%) and Costa Rica (99.6%) originated from foreign sources.
  • In the global landscape, upper-middle-income economies accounted for 46.3% of GIs, with high-income economies following closely at 43.1%. Lower-middle-income economies contributed 10.6% to the total.
  • India, with 429 GIs in force, stood out as a notable participant, emphasizing its commitment to protecting products linked to their geographical origins.
  • The breakdown of GIs according to their source revealed diverse patterns. Wines and spirits dominated the global scenario, constituting 50.7% of the total GIs in force in 2022.
Geographical indications in force by product category, 2022- Share (%)(Bhupesh Upadhyay for The IP Wave) Source: WIPO Statistics Database, 2023.
  • Agricultural products and foodstuffs accounted for 43.1%, underscoring the significance of these sectors in the GI landscape.
  • Handicrafts constituted 4.2% of the total, with Switzerland, India, and Austria reporting substantial numbers.
  • Notably, only a handful of jurisdictions, including Brazil, China, Macao SAR, Serbia, and the US, reported GIs for services, showcasing the diversity of products covered.
  • In terms of legal means of protection, China reported the highest number of GIs protected via the sui generis system, underlining its commitment to a diverse range of protection mechanisms. The Lisbon System, with 1,039 appellations of origin and GIs in force, demonstrated its influence, with France remaining its primary user.

4. Creative Economy

  • In 2022, the combined publishing industry revenue for 23 countries stood at USD 57.3 billion.
  • The United States took the lead with USD 26.2 billion, followed by Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, and France.
  • Trade sector revenue accounted for 50% or more of total revenue in 12 of the 20 countries
  • The report also highlighted a shift towards digital/audio formats, with Finland reporting the highest share at 39.7%, and Denmark, Finland, and Sweden experiencing a substantial increase.
Publishing industry revenue (USD Million), 2022(Bhupesh Upadhyay for The IP Wave) Source: WIPO Statistics Database, 2023.
  • Online sales emerged as a dominant channel, contributing significantly to total revenue in countries like (59.3%), the UK (59.1%), and Italy (52.3%)
  • Traditional brick-and-mortar stores remained crucial in countries like France, Japan, and Spain.
  • Children's books played a significant role, accounting for over one-third of trade sector revenue in Colombia, Denmark, and New Zealand.
  • The US led in revenue from children's books, reporting $4.9 billion in 2022.
  • The number of titles published also varied, with Turkey leading the way at 206,674 titles, followed by Brazil, France, Italy, and the UK, each reporting over 100,000 titles.
Distribution of publishing industry revenue by format, 2022(Bhupesh Upadhyay for The IP Wave) Source: WIPO Statistics Database, 2023.
  • The legal deposits survey emphasized the importance of national repositories, with the US experiencing a significant increase in deposits, reaching 264,722 in 2022.
  • Denmark, Spain, and the UK also saw substantial growth, while Germany and the Republic of Korea reported decreases.
  • The format of deposits varied, with Denmark, Germany, and the US having more than two-thirds of deposits in digital format
  • In 2022, the United States had 3.3 million registered ISBNs, making it the largest user of the ISBN identifier.
Children's book revenue (USD Million), 2022(Bhupesh Upadhyay for The IP Wave) Source: WIPO Statistics Database, 2023.
  • Japan came in second place with 902,311, followed by the Republic of Korea with 338,237, India with 281,091, and Germany with 277,000.
  • Unfortunately, China's 2022 data is not available. Out of 48 countries with available data for 2021 and 2022, 23 reported an increase in ISBN registrations in 2022 compared to the previous year.
  • Japan (+717,326), the US (+394,608), and Brazil (+64,928) recorded the largest increases, while Indonesia (-51,474), Ukraine (-16,031), and the UK (-15,793) saw a significant decrease in ISBN registrations in 2022 compared to the previous year.
Written by Shivani, Visualisation by Bhupesh. Originally published in the IP Wave.