Despite the fact that popular arguments over land and water access are gradually developing an explicit climate change language, they still fail to fully reflect the seriousness of India's climate problem. Farmers are taking new kinds of collective action as a result of changing realities in farming, such as the deteriorating sustainability of small-holder kann-bataai arrangements and the disintegration of irrigation calendars. These climate adaption strategies, which are typically on a small scale, are socio-ecological processes that are affecting social ties among farmers and even political configurations of farmers' demands on the state. In India's ongoing farmers' movement and agricultural politics, for example, unlike the major regional farmers' movement of the 1970s and 1980s, there has been no division between the politics of wealthy landowners on the one hand and marginal farmers and landless labourers on the other. Undercurrents such as climate change and developing forms of adaptation among farmers are anticipated to have a significant impact on political alliances and discourses. Future studies will hopefully establish ties between farmer political organisation and the articulation of the agrarian problem with adaptation as a political process.

Agriculture is becoming more unpredictable as a result of urbanisation and climate change, and peri-urban populations are looking for alternate livelihood prospects in the adjacent city. These changes are tearing the peri-urban social fabric apart, as not all residents (the elderly, women, and many farmers) are prepared to sell their land and pursue new careers. Peri-urban farmers could be encouraged and supported by local governments to create sustainable types of agricultural intensification under an anticipatory urbanisation approach. For example, employing existing agriculture knowledge in innovative organic vegetable and food marketplaces, such a strategy might offer opportunities in cities. Zoning laws can also be implemented by city authorities and urban planners to safeguard farming lands, green spaces, and water resources from urban and non-agricultural rural development projects.

Policymakers must recognise that these issues affect not only peri-urban inhabitants, but also the urban and rural populations and landscapes. These peri-urban challenges may have an impact on food production systems, agricultural ecology, and agricultural knowledge among peri-urban youths, especially in the long run. Several villages on the periphery of Gurgaon are a representation of these peri-urban issues, and we expect that in the near future, the employment of anticipatory urbanisation approaches can provide beneficial insights on peri-urban sustainability.

Peri-urban research is required to untangle the relationships among players involved in redefining, reshaping, using, and managing their resources in the face of climate unpredictability. Peri-urban spaces necessitate contextualised approaches that can aid in the understanding of processes of peri-urban CPR deterioration and depletion, as well as the formation of new resources, such as wastewater canals, and related practices of use and management. These approaches should also emphasise that issues in peri-urban areas are caused by power dynamics, social relations, and biased policies, not just by urbanisation and climate change.